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Binary MinMax Heap Implementation
A binary heap is a heap data structure created using a binary tree.
binary tree has two rules 
 Binary Heap has to be a complete binary tree at all levels except the last level. This is called a shape property.
 All nodes are either greater than equal to (MaxHeap) or less than equal to (MinHeap) to each of its child nodes. This is called heap property.
Implementation:
 Use an array to store the data.
 Start storing from index 1, not 0.
 For any given node at position i:
 Its Left Child is at [2*i] if available.
 Its Right Child is at [2*i+1] if available.
 Its Parent Node is at [i/2]if available.
Heap Majorly has 3 operations 
 Insert Operation
 Delete Operation
 ExtractMin (OR ExtractMax)
Insert Operation:
 Add the element at the bottom leaf of the Heap.
 Perform the BubbleUp operation.
 All Insert Operations must perform the bubbleup operation(it is also called as upheap, percolateup, siftup, trickleup, heapifyup, or cascadeup)
ExtractMin OR ExtractMax Operation:
 Take out the element from the root.( it will be minimum in case of MinHeap and maximum in case of MaxHeap).
 Take out the last element from the last level from the heap and replace the root with the element.
 Perform SinkDown
 All delete operations must perform SinkDown Operation ( also known as bubbledown, percolatedown, siftdown, trickledown, heapifydown, cascadedown).
SinkDown Operation:
 If the replaced element is greater than any of its child node in case of MinHeap OR smaller than any if its child node in case of MaxHeap, swap the element with its smallest child(MinHeap) or with its greatest child(MaxHeap).
 Keep repeating the above step, if the node reaches its correct position, STOP.
Delete Operation:
 Find the index for the element to be deleted.
 Take out the last element from the last level from the heap and replace the index with this element .
 Perform SinkDown
Time and Space Complexity:
Space  O(n) 
Search  O(n) 
Insert  O(log n) 
Delete  O(log n) 
Code:
Output:
Original Array : 3 2 1 7 8 4 10 16 12 MinHeap : 1 3 2 7 8 4 10 16 12 Sorted: 1 3 2 12 8 4 10 16 0
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