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What is a bull market and a bear market?

When talking about the stock market, you will hear the words "bull market" and "bear market" quite often. These words are related to the performance or the stock market and are associated with the bear and bull based on how these animals attack their enemies.

A bull attacks its enemy by moving its horns upwards. Hence a bull market is one where stock prices are going up.
A bear attacks its enemy by pushing its enemy down using its front paws. Hence a bear market is one in which stock prices are falling.
  When someone is bullish about a stock, they are expecting its prices to go up. In the same way, when someone is bearish about a stock, they expect its prices to fall.