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Find median of two sorted arrays of same size
Objective: Given two sorted arrays of size n. Write an algorithm to find the median of the combined array (merger of both the given arrays, size = 2n).
What is the Median?
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. For a data set, it may be thought of as the "middle" value. For example, in the data set {1, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9}, the median is 6, the fourth largest, and also the fourth smallest, number in the sample. For a continuous probability distribution, the median is the value such that a number is equally likely to fall above or below it.
If n is odd then Median (M) = value of ((n + 1)/2)th item term.
If n is even then Median (M) = value of [(n/2)th item term + (n/2 + 1)th item term]/2
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median
Example
A = 2, 6, 9 B = 1, 5, 7 Median = (5+6)/2 = 5.5 Explanation: combined array: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9
Approach:
Naïve: Create a third array, which will be the merger of both arrays based upon the formula we have mentioned above to calculate the median.
Time Complexity: O(n)
Binary Approach: Compare the medians of both arrays
 Say arrays are array1[] and array2[].
 Calculate the median of both the arrays, say m1 and m2 for array1[] and array2[].
 If m1 == m2 then return m1 or m2 as final result.
 If m1 > m2 then median will be present in either of the sub arrays.
 Array1[]  from first element to m1.
 Array2[] – from m2 to last element.
 If m2 > m1 then median will be present in either of the sub arrays.
 Array1[]  from m1 to last element.
 Array2[] – from first element to m2.
 Repeat the steps from 1 to 5 recursively until 2 elements are left in both the arrays.
 Then apply the formula to get the median
 Median = (max(array1[0],array2[0]) + min(array1[1],array2[1]))/2
Let take an example and walk through
int [] a = {2,6,9,10,11}; int [] b = {1,5,7,12,15};
m1 = 9 , m2 = 7 We have m1 > m2 Array1[]  from first element to m1, Array2[] – from m2 to last element.
int [] a = {2,6,9}; int [] b = {7,12,15};
We have m1 < m2 Array1[]  from m1 to last element, Array2[] – from first element to m2.
int [] a = {6,9}; int [] b = {7,12};
Now we have 2 elements left in both the arrays so now apply the formula
Median
= (max(array[0],array[0]) + min(array[1],array[1]))/2 =(max(6,7) + min(9,12))/2 = (7+9)/2 =8
Time Complexity: O(logn)
Code:
Output:
Median of combined sorted array is: 8.0
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